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human body systems and their functions

Wonders about the human skeleton
Wonders about the human skeleton
We know that we can't live without air,
water or food, but we can't survive for more
than 11 days without sleep. If this limit is
exceeded, the result is death.

Each kidney contains about one million
nephrons.
In five minutes going through kidney all the
blood out of the body. This quantity of blood
is filtered in about 40 m
maintained.
The two kidneys filter 150-180 l urine 24-hour
primary and secondary urine producing 1.5 l.
An adult normal 5-6 a day.
Maximum capacity of the bladder is 700-800 ml
of urine, while the average 300-400 ml of urine.
Every minute is producing five drops of urine.
A single man can donate organs, bone and
tissue for 50 people. Man can survive even
when i was one of her kidneys.

On average, the man can take breathing for
a minute. The world record in this sample is
7 minutes and 30 seconds.
The two lungs contain approximately 150-300
million alveoli of the lungs. Together with
pulmonary capillaries, they carried out an
area of exchange of about 150-200 meters.
A man can survive even when he was her
a lung.
Female vocal cords have a length of 12 mm
and 18 mm in man.
During a fit of coughing lungs prints at a speed
of expired air 900 km/h, and during a sneeze,
speed is only 170 km/h.
If you are breathing helium voice it thins. In this
case, a man's voice could be confused with
that of a Sopranos!
Over the course of 24 hours, a man breathes
of 21,000 times, and his lungs are processing
about 2,000 liters of air sufficient to swell with
40 pneumatic boats. Adult consumes about
300 cm3 of oxygen per minute, which is 442 l/24 hours.
Within 24 hours, the lungs are cross of 10,000 l
and 800 l of blood.
At a normal temperature of 20 ° C, an adult man
inspires and different amounts of air, expire,
depending on the movements that you make
and its position: the amount of ventilated air
ranges from 6 l when is lying, it when sitting
and 8 when it is standing without moving, at
14 when it goes When it runs, 43 and up to 100
when it submits an intense physical effort.
A man breathes cam 174 million liters of air
along the life.
Persons working or living in urban envir
onments breathe daily a quantity of the toxic
substance contained in a package of
cigarettes!
When the first breaths, a newborn must inspire about 50 times stronger than an adult.
The pharynx is interconnected with the respiratory digestive path.
The pharynx contains three pairs of tonsils.
Due to the presence of residual air in the lungs, a fragment of lung water put floats.
The lungs have a high elasticity and can be filled with air by 100 times easier than a balloon. When we rest, only 10% of air inspired and expired is eligible for reappointment. However, when we draw chest with air power or when we do demanding physical exercise, the air in the lungs can be replaced even 80%.
Lifelong, a man about 20 kg of inhale dust! You might say that it takes the vacuum cleaner in the House!

For normal activity, an adult needs about 2500 calories per day: 70 g protein, 70 g carbohydrate, lipid, 400 g 2.5/20 g water, mineral salts and vitamins.
Lifelong, man feeds about four years.

250 g of broccoli cabbage provides an equal amount of energy (82 kcal) 20 g sugar and 100 g of potatoes.
An individual's caloric Requirement al submitting a little physical effort is 30 kcal/kg bw at young, caloric requirement is higher (31 kcal/kg bw) than to the elderly (27 kcal/kg bw).
Carbohydrates should cover 50-55% of the ration energy, 20-30% lipids and 10-15% protein.
To lose weight, you don't necessarily have to follow complicated rules or to participate in strenuous fitness. The simple gesture of umecta with 10 stamps lead to loss of a calorie. In principle, it is possible to lose weight without having to pick up us armchair!
The energy of life is provided by foods and liquids that we consume. This energy can be expressed in calories. The water does not contain any calorie, while a banana contains 80 calories, us thus enough energy to be able to run for 10 minutes.
A man can survive about a month without food, but only a round trip without water.


More than 70% of the surface of the globe is covered by water, but fish-one of the richest foods in protein-not included in food ration of man than in proportion of 1%! After the calculations of specialists, production of food of the sea could equal that of the land. It has been established, for example, that the fish meal (containing 80% protein) is five times more nutritious than fish from which it is made.
Man consumes throughout his life over 65,000 litres of water.
Lifelong, a man eats a total quantity of food equivalent to the weight of 6 elephants, i.e. about 30 tons of food!
A person's usual Body contains enough iron to fabricate a long nail far enough sulphur to eradicate all fleas which parasitize a dog long enough carbon to make 900 pencils to mine, plenty of fat to 7 pieces of SOAP factory and enough water to fill a barrel with a capacity of 50 litres!

Every two weeks, our stomach produces a new mucosa to inside walls. Otherwise, the gastric juices to digest would get up and your stomach!
Milk Teeth appear between 6 months and 7 years. Hands-on final appears between 7 and 20 years of age.
Food Road along the esophagus takes about eight seconds. On average, the stomach digests a meal high in fat in six hours, and one rich in carbohydrates within two hours. Average duration of digestion in the small intestine is 3-5 hours.
A single man can donate organs, bone and tissue for 50 people. In fact, a human can survive even when i've been extirpate stomach, spleen, liver, and 75% of 80% of the intestines.
Small intestine has a length of 4-6 m it contains over 10 million undertaking a chorionic intestinal absorptive surface of approximately 1000 meters.
The liver is the largest gland in the body (1500 g) and showcases the greatest power of regeneration.
Gallbladder can store, between two digestion, bile about 0.41 l.
Digestion process was discovered 200 years from now the Reaumur, who put in a test tube a morsel of flesh poured over having gastric juice and found that after some time, the meat disappeared.
Daily, a person removes on average 0.5 litres of "wind"! They come simply from the air when we eat or drink or when gas emitted during the digestion process. Fortunately, most of them are odorless.

The human body is approximately 640 muscles, of which 400 are skeletal muscles.
Each beam contains approximately 1000 muscle fibers.
Forehead wrinkles are activate muscle 43.
Approximately 200,000 are necessary for the emergence of standing above a wrinkle.
The fastest muscles in the body are the eyeballs.
The human body is composed of two-thirds of the water. Water is the main component of muscles (73%). Decrease with only 1% of the quantity of water in the body, triggering immediate sensation of thirst!
Muscle contraction is manifested through phenomena of mechanical, electrical and thermal stresses.

In the skin there are about 2.5 million sweat glands. In terms of effort and heat, the amount of sweat can be increased to 5 l/24 h.
0.1% of man, C02 from the body is eliminated through the skin.
Skin weighs about 10 kg and represents about 15% of the body weight. It has a thickness of 7-9 mm and an area of 2 square meters.
Acne is caused by the excessive sebaceous glands. They are stimulated by the normal changes in the body and producing an increasing quantity of sebum which clogs the pores of the skin. Blackheads are dead skin cells loaded with melanin.
1.5% of Man receives external information through the sense of touch.
In the skin there are 250,000 for cold receptors and 30,000 for hot receptors.
The skin of the human body are renewed on a permanent basis. Within only an hour, a person loses 600,000 skin particles. In 70 years of life, so we can lose more than 50 kg of skins! Much of the dust in the House stems from these particles!
Gold was often attributed to the curative virtues. Thus, for treating skin ailments, an ointment which entrees in gold powder and used in medieval Europe, gold dust was mixed in some beverages intended for healing the pain of the hands and feet.

Thread the hair grows approx. 1.25 cm per month and has a lifespan of about three years.
Baldness in men is usually hereditary and is related to the sensitivity of hair follicles towards masculinity sex hormone-testosterone.
Head Hair and beard are the building blocks of the human body with the fastest growth. The head of an adult's daily produce 35 m of hairs, equivalent to the length of three buses stacked one after another.
Men they fall on average 40 hairs in a day, and women about 70 wires.
In men, beard grows much faster than hair from other parts of the body. It turns out that beard blonde grow faster than Brown. And if a man is not and would never shave his beard, in his old age it would have a length of about 1 m along the life, men who are rad this activity devotes 3,350 daily hours, or approximately 140 days or longer than 4 months!

The Middle fingernail grows faster. A fingernail reach normal length in about 150 days.
Fingernails fingers grow 4 times faster than your toes.
Nails grow on average 0.5 mm per week.
Fingernails grow each day, on average by 0.1 mm. because a fingernail to change is so need 2 months. It seems, however, that the nails are growing faster at the right hand and the left hand of left-handers. And the fastest growing of the fingernail.

Have you ever wondered how many bones does human body? You learned in middle school, but if you forget, you know us. The human body has around 206 does though is born with 350.
The human skeleton consists of a variable number of bones of different sizes, merged and individual, supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. At the time of birth man has around 350 bones during childhood, but a large part of them come together, remaining around 206 bones.

vital organs virtually any living organism, they contain several types of tissues, whose main os. Taken together, bone to form the so-called body-frame skeleton. The main functions of the skeleton include:

amortization: the presence of special education, which soften and to significantly reduce shaking while walking;
protective function of the internal organs (such as the skull and vertebral Canal);
motor function.
bones in an adult and child
To think how many bones in the human skeleton. On average, the total number of bones in the body, consisting of an adult-206. However, the calculation results can sometimes vary depending on the method of calculation. For example, one os can be thought of as consisting of several small bone or one made up of several elements.

in the so-called "skeleton" of the bones of the human body have been converted using dynamic connections: ligaments, stands

Of the 206 bones:

33-34 the rest os unpaired-pair;
23 skull and bones forming the skull is divided into a certain number of actions, each of which has its own function;
26 form the backbone, which, together with the sternum and the ribs 24 (which represents 25 bones) of the axial skeleton of the human body;
64, which includes brushes, hands, shoulders,
62 dice fall on lower limb skeleton.
There are three pairs of bones, anything related to the skeleton, which is located in the middle ear.

Few people know that in the body of a newborn baby has about 300 bones, some of them (this includes the bones of the skull, pelvis and spine) at a certain age are merged with one another, leading eventually to the child figure 206. soft, and some bones, such as the skull are nonunion jobs, which eventually condensed only 12-15 months.

Organization
the human skeleton
all the human bones are combined into two large groups.

Axial skeleton: the bones belong to here, with the middle position and forming part of the skeleton, which is the primary task. Components

of the axial skeleton:
the spine is divided into a number of departments: sacral vertebra, cervical (of 7 vertebrae, the share of which is allocated to the smallest load compared to other departments), thoracic, lumbar, coccyx (5-condensates and vestiges of the vertebrae).
in the chest, which looks like a truncated cone and protects the lungs. It consists of 12 pairs of ribs, merged with the sternum.
skull-is the primary protection against brain damage.
Additionally subdivided into skeleton a number of subdivisions of the bone:
Belt of the upper blade bears the load transducer connection (the bone that connects the arm and body) to the skeletal limbs axially.
the skeleton of the Department are the most suitable for the implementation of a variety of physical activities: write something, to raise, to fix, to keep. This group includes: shoulder (humerus), forearm (RADIUS) and wrist (wrist, metacarpal and phalanges).
the lower the load transducer of belt-connects to the lower limbs at the axial skeleton, here are the bones of the pelvis.
lower extremity (hip, femur, patela) drumstick (tibia and fibula), leg (Tarsus, metatarsus and phalange) allow human body moving in space and keeping the point of support on the ground.
If we're talking about sexual characteristics of the skeleton, then there are no significant differences. However, there is a specificity: bones

of upper and lower limbs, as well as bone connection hands men is larger and thicker.
Women have broad pelvis and a narrow chest.
skull Capacity in men more than women, with 150 cm3. Structure
cranial bones
the human skull is made up of 23, which, in addition to the middle ear cavity there are three paired bones, responsible for hearing. The Department also includes the head, teeth, which a person has 32, without counting the wisdom teeth, which usually are cut to 25-year-old bones.
Calories
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